Cardolan throughout the late Second Age and Eriadorian Northmen into the Third.As the source of "Cardolan Brass," the area had been the center of Eriadoran resistance to Númenor in the time of the Forest Wars. The Freeholders became subjects of the Princes of Dol Tinereb after S.A. 2600 without losing the traditional political rights of their villages and clans. As Cardolan decayed in the mid Third Age, the Freeholders emerged essentially independent, and their hills became an excellent place for refugees fleeing tyranny (or justice) in the princely realms to the south.
The population ofthe Pinnath Ceren dropped as Cardolan became more and more desolate and Orcs more and more common. After the fall of Arthedain, its isolation was almost complete, and most of the mines closed down. Beginning in the 22nd century, goblins of the Underdeeps entered the mines and were reinforced by Orcs from the Misty Mountains. Heroic efforts by the Ceren-folk, aided by Hobbits from Southfarthing and the Rangers, prevented a strong Orc-realm from taking root; thereafter, the mannish settlements were confined to the northern part of the hills. These villages, known collectively as the Red Hundred, persisted through the centuries, trading their metals and wares with the Hobbits and Rivermen and occasionally with the Dwarves and folk of the Gwathlo. The Masters of Buckland, after its founding in T.A. 2340, became their fast friends, and together they faced down an invasion of Saruman's "ruffians" in T.A. 3018. After the refounding of Arnor, the folk of the Red Hundred spread eastward and southward to reclaim their ancient heritage and became faithful subjects of the Telcontari.
- MERP:the Shire