FANDOM


This is an account of various units of measure which were in use throughout the Westlands in various periods of time. In old Beleriand Sindarian units of measure were used as a accustomed in barter between the Sindar, Noldor, Edain the the Dwarves of the Ered Luin. The Númenóreans largely based their later standards of measure on these , with few modifications, and they became common along the western coasts of Middle-earth throughout the Second Age. In the Late Third Age most peoples of the westlands had accepted the units of measure as they were established by the kings of Gondor, though these were late modifications of the older númenórean royal standards.The Dark Lord Sauron had tried to establish standardized systems too within Mordor and the Eastern and Southern Domains under his control, though it is unknown how far they eventually were accepted among the Orcs and Men of Darkness.

area

  • acre- 1 fur x 1 ch or 4480 square yards; in the Shire: the area of land which a good Hobbit farmer can turn over an acre of land in an hour with two oxen and a steel-shod plow (about 12 rods or 192' on a side)
  • perch - 1 rod x 1 rod ( 5 1/2 yards)
  • pole -same as perch 16​1⁄2 feet or 192' in the shire
  • rood -1 fur x 1 rod
  • Zagirat - Mordorian Yoke (ca. 25 ares or 0.625 acres)

length

  • Cable - 100 ftm
  • chain (ch) - 22 yards
  • Cord - A volume measure for cut wood. The Shire standard was 4' x 4' x 8' long, measured by a "cord" one rod long or or cordwain.
  • Dâl - late númenórean foot,almost exactly 30 cm ca. 12 inch
  • Dalg - ("Wave") mordorian measurement of length in Water; ca. 522 m or 570 yards
  • Daur - a league or 5000 rangar
  • Doram - mordorian Hand´s length ca. 9 in or 23 cm
  • ell -45 inches or ca. 3.75 foot
  • fathom (ftm) - six feet or ca. 1,83 m
  • finger's breadth - ca. 0,787402 in or 2 cm
  • foot (ft) - 12 in or ca. 30,48 cm (the late númenórean Dâl was almost exactly 30 cm)
  • Forvo - "right Hand"; Arnorian unit of measure, ca. 20 cm or 7,87402 in
  • furlong (fur) - acre's length
  • handsbreadth - ca. 7,5 in or 1/4 foot
  • hobbit-ell - about 24 inch
  • inch (in) - or 2,54 cm
  • Kamab - mordorian footlength; ca. 29 cm or 11 ½ in
  • lár - about 3 miles, or 4.8km
  • League (lea) - 5000 rangar or 5280 yards (ca. 4,83 km)
  • man's height - by late númenórean standarts 6 ft. 4 in. or 193 cm (the older Númenórean and Noldrian standard seems to have been ca. 7 ft or 2.13 m)
  • maqua - elvish (Eldarin) hand-length; ca. 21 cm or 8 in
  • mile (mi) - about 1,6 km
  • nail -2 1/4 inch
  • Nasta - "Spear-point" an old Elvish and númenórean unit of measure; ca 18 in or 46 cm
  • pôd - animal´s foot; in Dúnadan times ca. 5.5 in or 14 cm
  • quilta - "Waist" or "Girdle"; the width of a man´s girdle when closed around his waist as ideally desired. Old Dúnadan unit of measure ca. 31,5 in or 80 cm
  • raew - sindarian fathom, originally the mesh of a fishing net, ca. 3 cm or 1 in
  • ragme -old noldrian fathom, ca. 6 feet or 2.1 m
  • Ranga - ca. about 38in, or 96.5cm
  • rangwë - the High Eldarian and old Númenórean fathom, ca. 2 m
  • Rend - -a "run" mordorian unit of measure, 1,6 miles or ca. 2.6 km
  • rhaew - the late Dúnadan fathom as used in Arnor and Gondor, ca. 6 ft
  • Rod - Basic measure of ground. Shire farmers surveyed their land with a 16' rod, stick, or cord. An acre was thirteen rods on a side.
  • Sant - S. "Yard; the size of an average garden surrounding a Cottage or Villa ; in Númenórean times about 890x890 ft or 99 squareyards
  • Shakop - "staff", mordorian unit of measure, ca. 12 foot
  • Sorrlos - mordorian unit of length measure, a crow flight, ca. 40 miles
  • Tál - sindarian or late dúnadan foot ca. 12,04 in
  • Tala - Quendian unit of length, the length of the Sail of an old swanship ca. 40 feet (x40feet; the sails of the eldest swanships having been square).
  • thou (th) -0.0254 mm or 1/1000 in
  • yard (yd) - 36 inch or 91,44 cm
  • Wave -or "Rôs"; númenorean unit uf nautic measure; ca. 633 metres or 2077 feet
  • Zabislaw - mordorian league 2 km or ca. 1.2 miles

Time

  • amaurëa - dawn, early day
  • Anzurm -"big torch"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 2 hours (time a great torch needs to burn down)
  • ára - dawn
  • arya - twelve hours, day
  • Aur - sunlight day, morning
  • Burku -"Axeblade"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 3 hours (time it takes to forge a proper axe-blade)
  • calan - period of actual daylight
  • coranar - sun-round, year
  • dana - day (24 hours)
  • Day - usually a solar day or 24 hours
  • ennin - valian year; ca. 9.582 solar years
  • enquië - quendian six-day week
  • fann - the noldrian Solar year of ca. 365 solar days
  • fourthnight - 14 days/two weeks
  • glîn - "Eyeglint", ca. 1 second
  • Hour - 1/24 of a solar day
  • idhrinn -the sindarian year circle or Harvest-year of ca. 60 six-day weeks or lefnor
  • Ilakhad - "oil-lamp"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 14 hours (time a small oil-lamp needs to burn down)
  • în - the Sindarian Year; sometimes applied to the Noldrian Solar-year
  • kainendan - Valian fortnight (14 days)
  • - the old Eldarin Day in the Age of Stars; ca. twelve hours or a Day of the two trees
  • Ladru -"waxen torch"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 0,5 hours (time a simple wax- torch needs to burn down)
  • Lakhad -"miner's lamp"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 48 hours (time a miner's lamp needs to burn down)
  • lath - the old Noldorian Year, corresponding to the Valian Year of Year of the Two trees of 1000 Valian days or 12,000 Valian hours
  • lefnor - sindarian six-day week
  • lemnar - valian five-day week
  • loa - blooming, Elvish solar year
  • lúmë - the dark period or time of the Day
  • Manan -"light day"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 12 hours (the light half of a day)
  • minuial - "morrowdim", the time near dawn, when the star fade
  • minute - 1/60 of a solar hour
  • Month - see: months
  • Nuz -"sword-blade"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 50 hours (time needed to forge a proper sword)
  • Otsola - valian seven-day week
  • Otsolë - Númenorean seven-day Week
  • - full day (sunset to sunset); 24 hours
  • sana - day (24 hours)
  • second - 1/60 minute
  • Tatim - "breathing"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 45 seconds (time it takes to take a proper breath)
  • Udanak - "great candle"; dwarvish unit of time, ca. 60 hours (time a great lantern needs to burn down)
  • Week - see:week
  • Year - see:year
  • yén - Elvish long year (144 solar years)

volume

  • barrel - 139-163 l
  • bushel - 8 gallons
  • cask-60 gallons
  • gallon (gal) -10 lbs, 4.54 kg, 4.54 l,
  • gill (gi) - ca. 1/4 pint
  • Grum - "skull cup"; mordorian unit of measure ca. 1,5 l or 3.3 gallons
  • hogshead-46-64 gallons
  • Jar - a Jar of Beer in Bree, ca. 2 pints
  • peck - ca. 2 gallons
  • pint (pt) -1/8 gallon, 1/2 quart, 4 gills, 20 ouz, ca. 568 ml.In the Shire one-half of a quart measure, the standard size of a serving of beer for Men and Hobbits.
  • pipe-126 gallons
  • pottle-1/2 gall8n
  • quart (qt) -2 pints
  • Suith - eldarian unit of measurement, a small bottle or Phial , ca. 0.2 pints or 1.25 ml
  • tun-208-256 gallons
  • Yulda - Cup or chalice; old elvish unit of measure ca. 1 l or 35 liquid ounzes

weight

  • dal -elven unit of measure ca. 286 stone or 4000 pound
  • gond -originally sindarian unit of measure, ca. 6.5 lbs; in late Dúnadan Times (Arnor and Gondor) ca. 14 lbs
  • grain (gr) -ca 65 mg
  • Gur - mordorian "stone", ca. 9 kg or 20 lbs
  • lasse - elvish unit of weight; a leaf´s weight ca. 5 gr or 77 grain; used by apothecarys, Alchemists etc. for very fine measurement
  • lunga - late númenorean unit of measure, ca. 2 lbs
  • mald - "Pound", originally a Sindarian unit of measure of ca. 330 grams or 7.25 lbs; in later Times the standard númenórean piund was ca. 454 grams or approx. 1 modern imperial pound
  • man's weighth - in late Dúnadan times ca. 90 kg or 200 lbs
  • ondo -Eldarian or Noldrian Unit, "Stone"; ca. 33 lbs or 15 kg
  • ounce (oz) - ca. 1.73–1.83 cubic inches, 28.4–30 ml, ca 28 grams
  • pound (lb) -ca. 454 grams (or
  • quessë -old elvish unit of weight; a feather´s weight ca. 0.55 gr or 7.7 grain; used by apothecarys, Alchemists etc. for very fine measurement
  • stone (st)- 14 pounds or ca. 6.35 kg
  • talka - the weight o common man could lift; in late Arnorian and gondorian times a common unit of measure ca. 90 lbs
  • talma - a common elven unit of measure ca. 2.2 lbs or 1 kg
  • ton -2240 lbs


see:

Notes

Throughout his works JRR Tolkien only gives us very vague information about the Units of measure used throughout Middle-Earth.He does refer to the Númenórean Ranga, Daur, lár and man-high and gives exact definitions of these.In other places he mentions the mile, Furlong, League, Ell, Fathom, foot, yard, ton, pint, pound and ounze, though he seems to use the common imperial british standard. In the Sketches for the Lord of the Rings he briefly mentions the Hobbit-Ell, obviously a shorter unit of measure, different from the imperial standard. For this article Terms and names from Tolkien´s invented languages were researched and ancient historical units of measurement consulted to fill out gaps in the legendarium and create credible and practical standards.

References

  • MERP:The Shire
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.