Khand (earlier "Kha-on") stretched between the southeastern flank of the Ephel Duath and the northwestern edge of the Ered Harmal. It occupied the semi-arid plateau bordering northeastern Harad and thus commanded the great Khand Gap, the 100-mile wide pass facing southern Rhûn and eastern Mordor. Nûrad lay in the hills to the northeast.
Hot, dry, and windy, Khand was an unforgiving locale. Its flat, lowland areas afforded few means for stable settlement. Scrub and desert abound throughout Lower Khand. Here, horse herders moved their lightly-encumbered bands around a circuit of periodic shelters and encampments, their routes dictated by the location of springs, seasonal pools, and intermittent streams. The only permanent settlements lay along the broad, shallow Knife River, a tributary of the Harnen. Sturlurza Khand - the traditional capital of Lower Khand and the largest city between Umbar and the Talathrant - stood by the confluence of the rivers Knife (V. "Noz Peka") and Gold-horse (V. "Medlóshad Peka"). It was the home of the powerful Ûrpov and Oléna clans.
Upper Khand, which comprised the eastern and northern quarters of the region, enjoyed a bit more rainfall and cooler temperatures. The more numerous tribes of the area were generally richer and more settled than their brethren to the west and south. Upper Khand's principal city, Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter (V. "Refuge from the Flailing Wind"), stood only about 170 miles east and upstream from Sturlurza Khand; however, it received twice the precipitation and a lot less heat than its larger and more important counterpart. The town was home to the Irbô clan.
Lâorkí was the sister city of Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter and the second town of Upper Khand. The home of the Akhev clan, it had produced most of the Variag kings. Ûvathar Achev, the greatest conquerer of the line, became the ninth of Sauron's accursed Ringwraiths.
Ûvathar (aka "Ûvatha") was born at the Caves of Ôlbamarl. The vast caverns wind up and down through a mountain spur located in the southeastern part of the Ephel Duath (S. "Shadow-fence"). They include two permanent towns and seven shrines. Here, the bones of many Kings were entombed (the Variag successors stripped the meat from, and then ate, their fallen monarchs).
Khand originally was a gap and plateau between the southwestern shores of the Sea of Helcar (later to become the Núrnen) and the Ered Harmal.Khand was finally shaped when Sauron created Mordor by the volcanic activities of Mount Orodruin.The Lands of later Núrn and Khand by this time were populated by tribes of Iorag descent, the Ororath, Omodath and Vracarath which would become the ancestors of the later Variags.
The Iorag would name the Lands between Núrn and the Ered Harmal Kha-on ("Land of Horses and Sun") which would later evolve into Khand.
Following Sauron's defeat, Khand, due to its distance from Gondor, proved to be the only major combatant to emerge succesfully from the Continuation Wars evading the destruction and havoc caused by the armies of the [[Reunited Kingdom]9 to other allies of Mordor.
Economy in Khand turned round taxing the north-south and east-west caravan trade, mining exports and herding. The staple foods in Khand were corn and fish. Barley, wheat, melons, hemp, and cucumbers were also harvested in Upper Khand. There were many orchards and fertile regions around the Nóz Peka, which the Variags depended upon due to the infrequency of rain. Khand was an important trade route connecting East and West. For example, the "Silk Road" was an important link between Wômawas Drûs, Palisor, Kykûrian Kyn, and Umbar. Among the things traded along the Khand trade routes were silks,porcelain from Lôkhas Drûs, furs and cattle from Rhûn, candlewax, mead, honey and timber from Rhovanion, jewelry, silverware, gold, ivory and luxuries from Sîrayn, Rây and the Yellow Mountains, pottery and glass vessels from southern Gondor, coins, and exotic herbs and spices from Khyan. Radhanite traders of Khey passed through Khand on their way to western Endor, near-Rhûn, and other locations. Sîrayn also made use of the Silk Road trade, and their letters method of writing had become well known in Khand.The Khûr' subjects traded with the people of Kargágis Ahar and also with port cities in Bûlkhyades and Lyneria.Almost every kind of commodity had to someday pass through Khand.
About TA 1640: Ada Akroth Nikôd Akûl Arslan Baghatur Itakh Baghatur II Itakh Baryik Ûdo Bihar Ûdo Bôri Ûdo Brôdvaga Akhev Bûlan Itakh Bûsir Ûdo Deskîr Al-Khand Hamm Un Shalee Iusan Ivica Ibô Karm of Núrn Khôdid Ûprava Khionvad Akhev Khôngiû Ûdo Khôngiü II Ûdo Khûndai Itakh Khûndai Itakh II Khûndai Itakh IV Khûndau V Ûdo Curuband Mânâr Kûndai Nôhoth Akheth Nômid Akhev Ôdavith Akhev Ôthour I Ôthour II Ôthour III Ôthour IV Ôtokh Ôvag Ithô I Ôvask Drîond Ôvatha Ithô Ôvatha Ûdo II Ôvatha Akhev III Ovatha IV Ûdo Ovatha V Ovatha VI Ithô Sevrakhara Tarkhan Itakh Tarôkh Tûvan Ûdo Temer Cosrah Tukhik Tûlrokh Tykir Un Shalee Ûvatha VII Borzîgîn
TA 2950-3019: Asternakh Avas of Igath Beg Balûn Caljar Khurubra of Sturlurza Gorovod of Medlóshad Haarith Itâna Ôron Itâna-Ôvan Khanhai Keiseimu Khîonid of Ylâ-Khand Lûthkan Mîonid Oldur Ôvatha IV Râisha Tûkhrai Ûrdrath the Banner-bearer Ûrig of Ammu Baj Ûsriev Vacheraltan Vangaris Vrônkhar Wârlog Yursal Skakali
Ala-Khand Bûrsk Mareg Chain of Blades Desert of Khand Eastern Desolation Eastern Khand eastern mountains of Khand Ered Caradhram Fire Sea Gathod Greater Khand Harad-Khand-Border Hûk Saromis Itakh-Khand Kajbah Khadû Prakhôd Khand Amû (Khand Inferior) Khand Gap Khand Khûrvesra (Upper Khand) Lake Ata Lûrmsakun Maresh Methiant Rath Khand Middle Ered Harmal Passes Muzeida Vales Northern Steppes Northern Plains Nun Gazir Nûrad Ôlbamarl Plains plains of Khandur Pûstrava Rath Khand Sâr-Khand Sûbi-Khand Sûrakh-Khand Telaith Lyst Ûda-Khand Velarith West Khand Ylâ-Khand
Amast Núrn Ammû Khand Ankruz Bôgakh Bogath Brafenas Bûth Ôvaisa Carshram Núrn Enmahadh Erahavar Erszavar Gizar Hlastûon Hrôn Tûmrakhi Imak Peh Janprok Karghila Khuvad Khand Kôrandai Krûk Azbanna Krûk Boiadla Krûk Mahûr Kudnûvra Kyzilkum Lagari Ôrath Laôrki Layotani Marash Mattaram Mûrilak Nebûrkha Ôlbamârl Ôrduga Aivaiza Ôvatharak Parzee Sturlurza Khand Talazhan Tereze Ûbesêsh
Agûth-ot-Kekhaolthí Akhârn (City) Alag Rôkhbin Alagoth Ammû Asubûhi Blûmkholands Ciranthir Ikh´ahôn Kha´hae Kharsûm Kîlikûm Lhûg Lurôki Maresh Mûldin Narumbulot Parkhereb Pashâr Pâzghar Runakesh Slaveport Sturlûrza Sûbi-Khand Sûstaph-Khand Talazhan Temple of Khôndri Ôdchi Temple of Lôkuthor Tuaremindon Vârfest Varnakh
Andaelion Armadillos Aryx Black Lizards Black swans Brown rats Bûb Bush Gazelle Camels Cliff hornets Cobra Dagri Desert Puma Dire Wolves Fell Beasts Fell Wargs Fern-dancer Flying Foxes Gacalac Gembucks Golden Fire Ant Great Beasts Grey Wolves Harad-Dog Haradan-Jackals Highland Lynx Hulmîs Ant Kingshorn leaping Unbird lice Lions Lise Lisicavi Mordor Cattle Morgûl-Dogs Morungol Mosquitoes mud dauber wasps Painted Scorpion Pond Bats Red Deer Rock Vipers ticks Variag Dogs Variag Horses Variag Zûrafa Vultures of the Ered Lithui Werewolves Wild goats Wild horses
Ankî Arduvâr Argsbargies Carnegurth Dagmather Dragul Hárfy Harlindar Hôak-fôer Hugburtûn Hwindos Kaktú Klagûl Markû Merrig Nelissë Nelthandon Pathúr Sauthoël niben Shardúvâk Silraen Síran Sîriëna Swigmakrîl Tharfern Tûkamûr Turvîk Úl-náza Vinúk Yanta Hlianteron Yanúk-ty