Khand (earlier "Kha-on") stretched between the southeastern flank of the Ephel Duath and the northwestern edge of the Ered Harmal. It occupied the semi-arid plateau bordering northeastern Harad and thus commanded the great Khand Gap, the 100-mile wide pass facing southern Rhûn and eastern Mordor. Nûrad lay in the hills to the northeast.
Hot, dry, and windy, Khand was an unforgiving locale. Its flat, lowland areas afforded few means for stable settlement. Scrub and desert abound throughout Lower Khand. Here, horse herders moved their lightly-encumbered bands around a circuit of periodic shelters and encampments, their routes dictated by the location of springs, seasonal pools, and intermittent streams. The only permanent settlements lay along the broad, shallow Knife River, a tributary of the Harnen. Sturlurza Khand - the traditional capital of Lower Khand and the largest city between Umbar and the Talathrant - stood by the confluence of the rivers Knife (V. "Noz Peka") and Gold-horse (V. "Medlóshad Peka"). It was the home of the powerful Ûrpov and Oléna clans.
Upper Khand, which comprised the eastern and northern quarters of the region, enjoyed a bit more rainfall and cooler temperatures. The more numerous tribes of the area were generally richer and more settled than their brethren to the west and south. Upper Khand's principal city, Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter (V. "Refuge from the Flailing Wind"), stood only about 170 miles east and upstream from Sturlurza Khand; however, it received twice the precipitation and a lot less heat than its larger and more important counterpart. The town was home to the Irbô clan.
Lâorkí was the sister city of Ûbésêsh-ûta-Pavéter and the second town of Upper Khand. The home of the Akhev clan, it had produced most of the Variag kings. Ûvathar Achev, the greatest conquerer of the line, became the ninth of Sauron's accursed Ringwraiths.
Ûvathar (aka "Ûvatha") was born at the Caves of Ôlbamarl. The vast caverns wind up and down through a mountain spur located in the southeastern part of the Ephel Duath (S. "Shadow-fence"). They include two permanent towns and seven shrines. Here, the bones of many Kings were entombed (the Variag successors stripped the meat from, and then ate, their fallen monarchs).
Khand originally was a gap and plateau between the southwestern shores of the Sea of Helcar (later to become the Núrnen) and the Ered Harmal.Khand was finally shaped when Sauron created Mordor by the volcanic activities of Mount Orodruin.The Lands of later Núrn and Khand by this time were populated by tribes of Iorag descent, the Ororath, Omodath and Vracarath which would become the ancestors of the later Variags.
The Iorag would name the Lands between Núrn and the Ered Harmal Kha-on ("Land of Horses and Sun") which would later evolve into Khand.
Following Sauron's defeat, Khand, due to its distance from Gondor, proved to be the only major combatant to emerge succesfully from the Continuation Wars evading the destruction and havoc caused by the armies of the [[Reunited Kingdom]9 to other allies of Mordor.
- F.A. 1: Men awaken in Hildorien.
- Morgoth appears to the Talataerim peoples and walks among them, worshipped as a god. Eventually, he departs, leaving the seeds of evil among the Talataerim, with his followers helping to nurture it.
- Wars and strife begin between the Talataerim and Linerim peoples. The Avarin allies of the Lake-folk are drawn into the conflicts.
- c. F.A. 550: The Great Sundering occurs: the Linerim lead a great force against the aggressive Talataerim. The Talataerim, although commanded by evil servants of Morgoth, are defeated by the valiant lords of the Linerim and the Avari. The broken tribes of the later Ioriags are led westward, split from the Talataerim. They begin their migration across the great plains of Central Middle-earth.
- S.A. 50: Rakodsaol, a former demonic servant of Morgoth, comes amongst the ancestors of the later Variags -- the most westward of the future Ioriags. It teaches the Variag ancestors to tame the horse.
- S.A. 262 - 268: Rakodsaol, leading the Variags ancestors and the rest of the later Ioriags, invades the central Talathrant valley later known as Relmether. Its inhabitants are obliterated. The Variag's ancestors take many of the defeated as slaves.
- c. S.A. 100 - 596: The worship of Morgoth is fostered by Rakodsaol. It deifies itself and feeds on the Variags'ancestors reverence.
- S.A. 596: The proud and haughty ancestors of the Variags are defeated by their fellow future Ioriags and are forced to flee westward after the Battle of Amast Núrn.
- SA. 596 - 599: The broken and divided Variags settle in the wide grasslands north of the later Gap of Khand. Rakodsaol encounters Tuleirwen and her feänturi steed, Tulrok. After a long struggle, Rakodsaol is defeated and sorely injured, yet Tulrok is slain. Rakodsaol hides in the Ered Harmal for many long years, nursing his grievous wounds.
- S.A. 671 - 678: A Númenórean expedition, led by Er-Endrakhôr of Nindamos, explores Central Middle-Earth. The contingent rides through the later Gap of Khand in S.A. 673 and encounters raiders of the Variag's ancestors people in the same year. Their strong arms and armor save them from slaughter, and they soon push east, passing out of history.
- S.A. 680: Two tribes of the Variag's ancestors, the later Ororath and the later Omodath, migrate through the Gap of Khand.
- c. S.A. 700: The Telmorng, a fallen Fire Spirit in human form, leads orcs and the Ioriag tribes of later Núrn and Pustrava into the vales of later Harnen and Ode Pezar.
- S.A. 750 - 780: Several more tribes who will become ancestors of the later Variags make their way south to avoid the aggressions of Meklak, settling along the Noz Peka (later Khandwater) and the fertile vales of the Ered Harmal. Fighting and raiding between tribes is incessant, each struggling for premium pastures and water supplies.
- S.A. 500 - 1000: Sauron resurfaces in Middle-earth and is bent on domination. Through his work, many dark religions and ways flourish among the descendants of the Asrabi.
- c. S.A. 900: The Variag's ancestors of later Khand, long-steeped in dark worship, begin to lessen their warring ways and unite through their common religious beliefs. A true society begins as the first set of laws, devised by later clan Vracarathi ("Woman of Power") spreads through the tribal confederations. Sauron passes through later Khand and has much influence on these developments. Moon-worshipping Haradrim clansmen, the early Kibíc, appear out of the southern desert and destroy the fire spirit worshippers in Near Harad.
- S.A. 930: In the future Ammû Khand (valley of Khand) on the southern edge of the plateau, a great temple is erected from which tribal worship and justice is dealt out.
- S.A. 900 - 1200: Some clans begin to adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. Later Ammû Khand is sown with seeds, yielding rich crops.
- S.A. 950 - 1000: Dwarves and Haradrim drive the Variag's ancestors away from the eastern lowland reaches of the later Ode Pezar and build the first towns of the predecessor of future Lûrmsakûn at the foot of the later Plateau of Khand.
- c. S.A. 1000: Sauron, alarmed at the growing power of the Númenóreans, chooses Mordor as a land to make into a stronghold. He begins the building of Barad-dûr.
- c. S.A. 1050: The earliest forerunner of later Sturlûrza Khand is founded, owing to trade along the later Khandwater.
- S.A. 1182: The Sefvracara, chief of the later Vracara, travels to the site of Barad-dûr under compulsion by Sauron, where she is instructed in techniques of construction. She returns to future Ûbesêsh in 1286 (her life extended through dark sorcery?) and oversees the building of the earlyest predecessor of the later Hrôn Tûmrakhi ("Temple of the Lord of Darkness").
- S.A. 1250: Two small Númenórean expeditions -- one marching eastward from the Nan Harnen, the other moving northward from the Bay of Ormal -- meet at later Ôvatharak, an oasis in the southern land that would later be Khand. After a tense meeting with the local Osvodar ("lords") of the ancestral Variag culture, they exchange gifts and make trade agreements. The Tengwar script is introduced for the first time.
- S.A. 1260 - 1270: The village of later Laôrki is established in the northeast. In later times, the tribes of Upper Khand will hold gatherings and festivals here.
- S.A. 1200 - 1300: the early predecessor of Ûbesêsh is established as the religious capital of the region. The worship of the Lord of Darkness, an incarnation of Morgoth, is the central pillar of the religion. Feogur subtly re-establishes himself as one of the deities of the peoples.
Economy in Khand turned round taxing the north-south and east-west caravan trade, mining exports and herding. The staple foods in Khand were corn and fish. Barley, wheat, melons, hemp, and cucumbers were also harvested in Upper Khand. There were many orchards and fertile regions around the Nóz Peka, which the Variags depended upon due to the infrequency of rain. Khand was an important trade route connecting East and West. For example, the "Silk Road" was an important link between Wômawas Drûs, Palisor, Kykûrian Kyn, and Umbar. Among the things traded along the Khand trade routes were silks,porcelain from Lôkhas Drûs, furs and cattle from Rhûn, candlewax, mead, honey and timber from Rhovanion, jewelry, silverware, gold, ivory and luxuries from Sîrayn, Rây and the Yellow Mountains, pottery and glass vessels from southern Gondor, coins, and exotic herbs and spices from Khyan. Radhanite traders of Khey passed through Khand on their way to western Endor, near-Rhûn, and other locations. Sîrayn also made use of the Silk Road trade, and their letters method of writing had become well known in Khand.The Khûr' subjects traded with the people of Kargágis Ahar and also with port cities in Bûlkhyades and Lyneria.Almost every kind of commodity had to someday pass through Khand.
About TA 1640: Ada Akroth Nikôd Akûl Arslan Baghatur Itakh Baghatur II Itakh Baryik Ûdo Bihar Ûdo Bôri Ûdo Brôdvaga Akhev Bûlan Itakh Bûsir Ûdo Deskîr Al-Khand Hamm Un Shalee Iusan Ivica Ibô Karm of Núrn Khôdid Ûprava Khionvad Akhev Khôngiû Ûdo Khôngiü II Ûdo Khûndai Itakh Khûndai Itakh II Khûndai Itakh IV Khûndau V Ûdo Curuband Mânâr Kûndai Nôhoth Akheth Nômid Akhev Ôdavith Akhev Ôthour I Ôthour II Ôthour III Ôthour IV Ôtokh Ôvag Ithô I Ôvask Drîond Ôvatha Ithô Ôvatha Ûdo II Ôvatha Akhev III Ovatha IV Ûdo Ovatha V Ovatha VI Ithô Sevrakhara Tarkhan Itakh Tarôkh Tûvan Ûdo Temer Cosrah Tukhik Tûlrokh Tykir Un Shalee Ûvatha VII Borzîgîn
TA 2950-3019: Asternakh Avas of Igath Beg Balûn Caljar Khurubra of Sturlurza Gorovod of Medlóshad Haarith Itâna Ôron Itâna-Ôvan Khanhai Keiseimu Khîonid of Ylâ-Khand Lûthkan Mîonid Oldur Ôvatha IV Râisha Tûkhrai Ûrdrath the Banner-bearer Ûrig of Ammu Baj Ûsriev Vacheraltan Vangaris Vrônkhar Wârlog Yursal Skakali
Ala-Khand Bûrsk Mareg Chain of Blades Desert of Khand Eastern Desolation Eastern Khand eastern mountains of Khand Ered Caradhram Fire Sea Gathod Greater Khand Harad-Khand-Border Hûk Saromis Itakh-Khand Kajbah Khadû Prakhôd Khand Amû (Khand Inferior) Khand Gap Khand Khûrvesra (Upper Khand) Lake Ata Lûrmsakun Maresh Methiant Rath Khand Middle Ered Harmal Passes Muzeida Vales Northern Steppes Northern Plains Nun Gazir Nûrad Ôlbamarl Plains plains of Khandur Pûstrava Rath Khand Sâr-Khand Sûbi-Khand Sûrakh-Khand Telaith Lyst Ûda-Khand Velarith West Khand Ylâ-Khand
Amast Núrn Ammû Khand Ankruz Bôgakh Bogath Brafenas Bûth Ôvaisa Carshram Núrn Enmahadh Erahavar Erszavar Gizar Hlastûon Hrôn Tûmrakhi Imak Peh Janprok Karghila Khuvad Khand Kôrandai Krûk Azbanna Krûk Boiadla Krûk Mahûr Kudnûvra Kyzilkum Lagari Ôrath Laôrki Layotani Marash Mattaram Mûrilak Nebûrkha Ôlbamârl Ôrduga Aivaiza Ôvatharak Parzee Sturlurza Khand Talazhan Tereze Ûbesêsh
Agûth-ot-Kekhaolthí Akhârn (City) Alag Rôkhbin Alagoth Ammû Asubûhi Blûmkholands Ciranthir Ikh´ahôn Kha´hae Kharsûm Kîlikûm Lhûg Lurôki Maresh Mûldin Narumbulot Parkhereb Pashâr Pâzghar Runakesh Slaveport Sturlûrza Sûbi-Khand Sûstaph-Khand Talazhan Temple of Khôndri Ôdchi Temple of Lôkuthor Tuaremindon Vârfest Varnakh
Andaelion Armadillos Aryx Black Lizards Black swans Brown rats Bûb Bush Gazelle Camels Cliff hornets Cobra Dagri Desert Puma Dire Wolves Fell Beasts Fell Wargs Fern-dancer Flying Foxes Gacalac Gembucks Golden Fire Ant Great Beasts Grey Wolves Harad-Dog Haradan-Jackals Highland Lynx Hulmîs Ant Kingshorn leaping Unbird lice Lions Lise Lisicavi Mordor Cattle Morgûl-Dogs Morungol Mosquitoes mud dauber wasps Painted Scorpion Pond Bats Red Deer Rock Vipers ticks Variag Dogs Variag Horses Variag Zûrafa Vultures of the Ered Lithui Werewolves Wild goats Wild horses
Ankî Arduvâr Argsbargies Carnegurth Dagmather Dragul Hárfy Harlindar Hôak-fôer Hugburtûn Hwindos Kaktú Klagûl Markû Merrig Nelissë Nelthandon Pathúr Sauthoël niben Shardúvâk Silraen Síran Sîriëna Swigmakrîl Tharfern Tûkamûr Turvîk Úl-náza Vinúk Yanta Hlianteron Yanúk-ty