The Ithilwaith or Ithileans were the populace of the gondorian Province of Ithilien. Although the inhabitants of the great City Minas Ithil claimed to be of high númenórean descent (since the Shadow of Mordor kept away the indigenous Tribesmen) actually many of the rural Folk of northern and southern Ithilien also had Daen and Haradrim-Ancestors.
Though it was but a part of the larger royal ward, Harithilien was home to more than three-fourths of the population, most of which was concentrated in the southern plains, where the rolling wheat fields stretched on seemingly forever. These farmlands had belonged to the nobility for generations.Even though the majority of the population consistsed of peasants or shepherds, the nobles were by far the most important and influential group in Harithilien. The Harithilien nobilicy was a proud group as it traced its origins back to the days of Númenor and was very conscious of the ancient link between blood and power. Over time, as Númenórean blood mixed with that of Daen, Northmen, and Haruze, many noblemen could only claim a hint of such ancestry. Even so, the legitimacy of any claims to power were judged mainly by the right of blood.The nobility's embrace of its Númenórean heritage was reflected in its language and culture. Nobles spoke Sindarin and Adûnaic and had some knowledge of the Westron tongue used by the commoners, but were reluctant to display such a base skill. There were many changes in the structure of the Harithilian nobility after the Kin-strife. Those individuals and families who had supported Castamir were deprived of their status, and their land was taken away from them.Some were executed for treason, but most took refuge in Umbar. In Harithilien, these nobles were referred as "the Fallen".Eldacar then gave the land of the Fallen to those who had supported him against the Usurper. This resulted in a shift of power from the older families to younger, more ambitious ones. In some cases, Eldacar ennobled commoners, thereby insulting some of the established families. This gave rise to frequent feuds, and blood was spilled on several occasions when quarreling sons traded blows to defend the family honor.But for the nobility, status was the most important factor of life. It was pursued in several ways, but prowess in diplomacy, law and political wisdom were judged by many to be superior to the skills of a warrior and, especially, to those of a merchant. Status was also achieved by gaining land and wealth, whether through marriage, scheming, or displaying such prowess in the service of the realm that the king granted a notable favor in return. In everyday life, the Harithilian nobles tried to live as if they were at the royal court. Their dress and behavior were similar to those in the royal household, recalling ancient Númenórean custom. Though the wealth of the nobility was based on agriculture, the actual tending of the land and its resources was left to trusted servants. As a result, many nobles estranged themselves from the land, becoming arrogant and haughty. They looked down on the commoners, seeing them merely as servants. The commoners worked for the nobility and landowners as tenant-farmers, shepherds and other low status occupations. They lived in small villages or at the larger, noble estates. The commoners were hard-working and loyal subjects of the Winged Crown. They were respectful of their elders and fanatically devoted to their families, the most important factor in life. The family ties of the folk of Harithilien were legendary, and many vendettas had been fought over them. The Harithilians peasants' blood was mixed in the same way as that of other Gondorians.They traced their ancestry back to the aboriginal Daen and to the subsequent Númenórean, Northmen, and Haruze immigrants. They spoke a distinct dialect of Westron which had many unusual words for farming and associated activities. It was uncommon for a peasant to speak more than halting Adûnaic. The commoners, were they peasants or artisans, seldom controlled their own livelihood, but worked instead for a nobleman or a wealthy landowner.This structure was established when the Dúnedain settled the country and was reinforced after the Kin-strife, when Eldacar used Harithilien to reward many of his loyal followers and gave land and wealth to new families.