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The New Notion Club Archives


Haradrim Languages (Various Dialects)
Height of average adult
Between 5' and 6'
Average Lifespan
50-100 Years
Renowned individuals

Other names

  • Har. "Barangiles" (Near Haradrim term for the Far Haradrim or Black-Men)
  • Kh. "Briz-Farak" ("Southern Men")
  • Har. "Harwan" (late Third Age self-identification of the Near Haradrim)
  • W. "Southern People" or "Southrons"
  • Ad. "Khârai"
  • S. "Haradwaith"
  • Um. "Haradi" (usually only the Urban Haradrim in contrast to the Aranians or Sandmen)

Short Description

The term Haradrim (S. "South(ern) people") or Southrons was applied to a large number of very distinct human peoples and tribes of southern Middle-earth. In the closer sense it was used for the cultures of the Haradwaith, a large area which once had been under suzerainty of the Kingdom of Gondor and was considered a royal province. The best known Haradrim were the northern Harûze, while deep in the south widely varying tribes could be found, among them the black Barangil peoples of the Utter South who were often considered a culture distinct from the common Haradrim by many scholars. Some of the northern Haradrim also claimed to descend or be related to Bórs folk or the House of Beör and used this mythical ancestry in their ever changing history of shifting allegiances with Gondor and Umbar.


Harûze Couple wearing Torfte

The First and Second Ages

Since the Númenóreans discovered the southern lands to be populated by strange tribesmen, whom they called the "Kharai" ("Southrons") or "Sakal-Lai" ("Coastal People", a term sometimes applied to the Daen-folk of southern Gondor), Sages and Loremasters have tried to categorize these strange wild or dark men. The most common suggestion was that the people of the Harad were largely descendants of the Asrabi, the Men who did not turn away at Cuivienen but who had stayed under the influence of the Dark Powers. In the First Age or early Second Age migrating groups of wild men, called Harnerim and Narnerim (maybe late neologism by Gondorian scholars or terms learned from the Avari) seem to have come to the then widely uninhabited regions of the south, if they were late refugees who had abandoned the dark worship or if they were remnants of the ancient dark realms of the Eastern Lands was not known. In the north some tribal blending seems to have occurred with southern tribes of the later Daen-family, also the northern Kharai-tribes who later became the Haruzani were a lighter-skinned people of smaller stature while in central Harad the numerous tribes expanded which later became the Apysans, very tall and dark-skinned men and women, both groups intermingled to a large degree in Far Harad and produced a number of successor-cultures. The Utter South was settled by tall and black-skinned tribes later scholars of Gondor or Avari Elves called the "Mornedain" or "Moratani", these groups later became the brutal Mûmakani but also the noble Tuktani and their Kirani descendants, in the Western Peninsula and the northern parts of the Utter South these tribes intermingled with the Apysan-culture which later spawned peoples such as the Adena, Drêl, Pel, and Magri. In Eastern Harad at this time there was a migration of tribes who were of Talataerim-stock, close relatives of the Easterlings of Rhûn, these also came under the influence of both the northern and southern Harnerim and Narnerim and so were too considered Haradrim (at least by some scholars). While there were a few Avari Elves in the Harad (namely the Cuind and Kinn-Lai) there never seem to have been any friendships between the Kharai and the Quendi, just as there never was much contact between Men and the Dwarves who settled in the Ered Harmal and Ered Laranor. The Kharai seem to have been largely primitive stone-age cultures until the first Númenóreans started to visit the western coasts of Endor, they started to trade goods with the Sakalai and later established colonies along the coast such as Umbar, Bellakar, An Balkumagan (Ciryatanórë), the Thani Hazad (Seven Lands), and southernmost Tantûrak. The Númenóreans seem to have had a great impact on the Kharai as many splinters and myths of the later Haradrim showed Númenórean influences (such as the many southern idols which seemed to be corrupted versions of the Valar). With growing pressure from the more and more demanding and suppressive rule of the Númenórian colonies many tribes came under the influence of the Dark lord who at the time was re-appearing in Mordor and established a great realm among the men of Darkness, this was even supported by the rebellion of some southern colonies against the Númenórean Sea-kings, a rebellion which later led to three Númenórean Princes to accept Rings of Power from Sauron, turning them into Nazgûl: Er-Mûrazôr, Adûnabêth and Khôrahil. A fourth and fifth Nazgûl hailed from the Utter South and the lands north of the Ered Harmal: Indûr, a Kiran-Noble; and Rên the Unclean, a Sorcerer of the Khailûzans. With the drowning of Númenor the southern colonies finally gained independence and developed into the realms of the Black Númenóreans who continued to dominate the southern coasts, while the indigenous Kharai established a number of tribal realms in central Harad. With the fall of Sauron the Haradrim regained their freedom for a brief period, although the dark kingdoms of old seem to have survived the disappearance of the Nameless at last in some areas.

Third Age

Haradrian Couple

In the early Third Age the Black Númenórean colonies developed into independent kingdoms and could establish sovereignty about most of the Haradron tribal realms, although a few remaining Southron kingdoms were able to develop into recognizable realms in their own right. The by far most powerful Black Númenórean realm was Umbar, which controlled the coasts of Haradwaith until TA 933. In the same year Gondor achieved to conquer Umbar, but the exiled Lords of Umbar, supported by Haradron allies, attempted to reconquer the city in TA 1015 and put the haven under siege for 35 years. After King Hyarmendacil I was able to conquer Near Harad the Umbarean siege could be ended and large parts of the Haradwaith became a Gondorian province. The Gondorian supremacy lasted until the Kin-strife in 1484, although several Lords of the Southern Confederacy supported Castamir the Ursurper and his descendants, others used their chance to set themselves free of Umbar's influence and allied themselves with the Army of the Southern Dragon. The most prominent of these renegades was Mardât the Serpent-Lord, who resided at the city of Kârna and was defeated by Hyarmendacil II in TA 1551. In 1810 Telumehtar Umbardacil reconquered Umbar and set up a new southern confederacy of puppet-kings among the Haradrim, however Gondor continually lost influence in Harad. The last time the Haradrim fought against enemies of Gondor was in early 1900, when the Lords of Near Harad defeated the intruding Wainriders, in 1944 however the conflict was settled, a new High-king of Near Harad rose and allied himself openly with the Lords of Rhûn and Khand and made war on Gondor's southern border. In TA 2194 the first Sun-Lord rose to power in the Bôzisha-Mîraz and between TA 2339 and TA 2947 Gondor lost its last allies with the remains of Arthanor. In the 28th century Umbar was finally lost to indigenous Haradrim who now established a Haruze-dynasty in Umbar, in 2758 these new Corsairs started to raid the coasts of Gondor and western Rohan. The last former Gondorian puppet-kings had already fallen in TA 2885 when the Lords of Near Harad allied with more southern tribes crossed the fords of Poros but were defeated by an allied army of Gondor and Rohan. The following years the Umbarean dynasty was able to dominate all of Near Harad and most of the southern coasts, following Sauron's return in 2951 the Pillar of Ar-Pharazôn was torn down and Sauronite Priests became influential on the Mat p'tan of Umbar, mostly due to their dreaded Assassins, the Hâsharin. In Far Harad one of the last puppet-kings' descendants, the Haradrian Lord Sûladan rose to power and claimed himself the new Serpent-lord. With the open support of Mordor and the former Army of the Southern Dragon, now reformed as the Serpent-Army, Suladân was able to spread his influence about the greatest part of Haradwaith and led a huge army of the Haradwaith-confederation against Gondor in the War of the Ring. With the defeat of the Serpent Army also the last Southron confederation was broken, the early Fourth Age saw Gondor reconquering Near Harad and expanding its influence on the Haradwaith again.

Political Organisation

The Haradrim Domains about TA 1650

The Haradrim were divided in numberless tribes and clans. In Near Harad the Harûze were ruled by Autarbs or local petty-kings of which the most powerful ones were the Taskrals or Stone-Kings. In Far Harad The High-King, or Kralyî,had been the formal master of the lands of Rây or Bôzisha-Mîraz until the Númenórean rule. After the Fall of Númenor a Council of Regents was elected to rule the city-dwellers until a new Kralyî would rise, but it had little influence on the desert nomads. The Elite Warriors of Far Harad, the Vísi, enforced the Regents' will. The City-states of the Sîrayn, or Mezin-Taryb, were ruled by local Kings, the Tarybs, but actually the Taryb of Tûl Îsra had become the mightiest ruler of the area and was simply known as "the Taryb". His main officer and enforcer was the Taraskôn, and under his subject were the numerous local governors (or Balabett) and Mayors (or Balazain). Magi and scribes also held great power and were often referred to as "Tyatarbs" ("Small Kings"). Main military power of Far Harad was the Army of the southern Dragon which was forged by the Nazgûl Khôrahil and which adhered Sauron's rule. All Tarazain and Balazain of the Haradwaith were nominally subordinates of the Nazgûl Khôrahil.

There were a number of powerful guilds, the merchant-guild of the Namálo and the caravan-masters of Sîrayn and a number of magician guilds, the Karalîya,which included the Krômet, Mûdrat, and Tâma.

see: Southern Confederacy


Haradrim tongues:

Black Númenórean tongues:

Easterling Tongues:



The Haradrim followed a number of superstitious indigenous cults as well as religious ideas spawned by the Númenóreans. The most important religious Lore of Harad had been written down in the two books Tarat Balazain and Kât-Polozây.

Near Haradaic Idols:

Far Haradaic Idols:

Deities from the Utter South:

Black Númenórean mixed cults:

Númenórean and Black Númenórean deities:

Genealogy of the peoples and tribes

The Haradrim comprise various confederations of Haradaic and Apysaic-speaking peoples who reside in Harad.

Alternative views

The Lord of the Rings Strategy Battle Game

The Lord of the Rings SBG stays with the depiction of the Haradrim as in the Lord of the Rings movie trilogy but adds a few details. The Haradrim are seen as a multitude of tribes and cultures who are for the most part united under the rule of Suladân, the serpent-Lord. Suladân's father was one of the descendants of the puppet-rulers of Gondor and Umbar who grew up as hostages on the Gondorian or Umbarian courts, Suladân himself however is a vengeful character who seeks the annihilation of Gondor. Suladân's elite force are the Serpent-guards, he is also supported by the Hasharii, an Order of Assassins similar to the Nightblades. Competitiors to Suladân's single fame are the golden king, a rich merchant-lord and ruler of the city state Abrakhan, the Watchers of Karna, descendants of the old priestly caste of the now forsaken ruin-city Karna, and Dalamyr, the Chief of the Hasharin-Order of Umbar.

The Haradrim Domains in the late third Age

The Lord of the Rings Role-playing Game

The Lord of the Rings Roleplaying Game shows the Haradrim as largely nomadic clans controlled, used as mercenaries, and kept in ongoing international squabbles, by Umbar. Only in the farther South there are a few greater tribal confererations who are also allies and trading partners of Umbar. Umbar, after the driving out of the last descendants of Castamir, is a Haradrim state controlled by fanatical warrior-clans ruled by Chieftains ("P´tans"). The Mat-P´tan ("High-Chief") of Umbar is in uneasy rivalry to the High Priest of Khaz-gramaze (Sauron) who holds a lot of power in Umbar. At the time of the War of the Ring the most influential persons of Umbar (and Haradwaith) are: Khrâd Nissin (High-Chief of Umbar), Middat F´rtena (Tanagemish or Captain of Ships), Tamath Hossish (Chieftain of the Urdon, Umbar's most influential family) and Krel Banid (Commander of the Umbar Garrison).

The War of the Ring Strategy computer game

Haradrim of the Serpent-Horde

The War of the Ring computer game mentions a Haradrim King named Qamara. The Haradrim have a special Unit of Slayers or Assassins, whose leader is a woman known as Saléme.

The Elendor MUSH

The Elendor Mush shows the Haradrim as a people divided by internal struggles. Two tribes, Qata and Tandi, of the two rival cities Khemnahr and Telshar are at war with each other. In the middle of the great desert there is a great city, Tarzhayan, serving as a main trading point between the peoples of Harad. There are some Black Númenorean Cities left on the coast such as Azrakadar and Azrazayan, one large orcish fortress, Turseg, in the grey mountains as well as the town Azmaroth controlled by Olog-Hai, Tavorus in the Far South and Asubuhi - a Variag colony - in the east.

Haradrim of Renown

Abit I Abit II Abit III Abur Aknazeh Alcârin Alviss Akil I Akil II Akil III Akil IV Akil V Akil VI Al Tufayl Alcârin Alchmar Amrukh Aransiros the Sublime Ared Ared II Ared III Arig Ashmaar Azranû Belphegor Bel'zordin Berkhalimur Bethin Omul Bhadra Busaah Caiode Carlon Carnen Mek Castamir Cîath Dalamyr Del Imat Delgamar Desul Muargiz Drozhna Eben Akil Eben Fensayk Eben Imocra Ejenna Emig Cosrah Entoj Adun Erenin Falah Fasimba III Fatih Felês Fhaleen Firyal Gâlan Ganachyn Ganagan Ganashôshyn Ganshô Gedron Pal Abas Gharic Ghasaan Gimmin Dzepar Gutharic Haarith Hamaluk Lengur Hammed Hannad Harith Harngorin Haruth do Ramam Hasabb Hasong Hircanus Hord Pon Ifta Ildanien Indur Ivic Ivic II Jaeru Jagai Jamak Spijun Jamir Jasal Akrir Jehn Remak Jerrek Jerrek II Jibran Jilaâd Jhuldân Jubayr Jusan Akil Jusan Tural Kabadir Kaiús Kâlach Hûl Kâldor Kali Vatra Kalik do´Altir Kalsarid Kamril Karaag Karan Karm of Núrn Kathôl Kavâtha Kerrek Khandash Khrâd Nissin Khaldoon Khas Rûktar Khuzaymah K´kala Klu Relortin Kóashûn Krel Banid Kunbeshu L´rana Latrock Lorgaz Lubayd Luthkan Maazin Mairan Naubirk Manari Akaji Mardat Marreth Marudîr Mauthoi Mbanga Mdikva Meija'hyn Meklug Mélorak Menuyo Meriot Merul Methan Sai Middat F´rtena Môrvar Châric Muhad Murakir Musab Muthanna Naiv Agan Naiv II Naiv III Naiv IV Naiv V Narmur Nazrog the Scourge Nevazar Pon Opar Pon Opar II Orag Ossim Rallah Pegan Soy Pell Vuk Peshtin Pon Olarti Psousén Qamara Geasa Qusay R´chaka Raghta Sai Râza Raziämin Sagûl V Saleem Saléme San Martorin Selachil Selâth Serifés of Harad Shabla the Slow Shâdin Shamara sut Katub Sharg Shôbûragan Sibroc II The Sleepless Slimfinger Slú-Calón Slûcrac Sufyan Suhayr Suladan Suljati Sey Tabaya Kas Tallas Lengur Talús Tamath Hossish Tartas Izain Tarvaran Tasagana Tel Azef Telgir the Mystic Temer Cosrah Temyylok Tennith Borbul Tescel Varazin Tisraak Tonn Varthkur Tónn Várthkûr II Tor Mitari Trogdor Tuchik Cheyan Tuelik Cheyan Tukrai Ubaadah Ubayy Utbah Yaman Vangir Vâshnir Vishtâspa Vûlmek Vygavril Warad Waqqas Wyatan Yaman Yanina Yashar Yazan Yezmin Tukrai Zayd Samîr Zein Rallah Zimrakhil


  • Retrieved from Realms of Arda;
  • Original reference: Fan module: Greater Harad LotR