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Middle-Earth, although often thought of by modern scholars as a mythical analogue to the real temporal world, in fact corresponded to Eurafrasia as it was during the prehistoric Age from BC 10,000 to BC 2340, the recorded date of the Great Flood, which is identified as the final alteration of the world's geological structure, and from which modern history is recorded, the modern day being the 1st century of the Seventh Age.

With this in mind, it is notable that a large gap exists between the recorded Fourth Age and the unrecorded Fifth Age. Major geological and biological events have been identified in this era, but their relationship to the old histories is little understood. It is believed that the Fifth Age revolved around the further devolution of the Dúnedain Empires in the Westlands, and the further withdrawal of the non-Mannish Eruhini from the activities of the world, as well as the rise in prominence of Lesser Men. It is believed that the fall of Gondor and the Dúnedain was a result of the spread of pagan philosophies based upon the Dark Worship, as well as interaction and trade with other peoples turned to imperialism and oppression. From this concept, several basic events can be conjectured;

  • F.A 1-1000 - Following the Civil Wars of the Dúnedain, their realm is reorganized as a single, centralized empire. That realm is vast and wide, and its rulers exact tribute from the realms of Rhovanion, the peoples of which withdraw into nomadic tendencies in accordance. Trade is exacted also from the wide realms of Harad and Rhûn. In Harad, local peoples adopt Dúnedan customs, and the roots of proto-Egyptian and pre-israelite civilizations begin to develop. In the East, the Men of the Orocarni, possibly relatives of the Ûbain or Lôkhans, taught by the Ithryn Luin or their successors, adopt many of their crafts, becoming an empire in themselves (this is identified with the rise of proto-Chinese and other East-Asian civilizations.) The Hobbits, while remaining subject to the Dúnedain, become an isolated people; they cease trade with Men save for those of Bree, and begin taking to woods and valleys, as well as shrinking further in size. The Barakul-Dwarves of Ironhome in the north migrate southwards, originally to trade with the Dúnedain, but then to prepare for migration southwards, where greater riches and independence lie.
  • F.A 1000-2000 - The Empire of Adûnabar begins to become corrupt. A cult rises within it, based upon ancient Dark Worship (possibly a variant on the Cult of Herumor), and various mistranslated forms of the history of the Elder Days are produced, identifying the Valar as gods in themselves, and Morgoth as their chief; this gives rise to the first prominent forms of paganism in the Westlands, and over time, oppression of the Eruist and monotheistic peoples begins. The realms of the east, chief among them the Empire of Xia in Far Rhun, are beset by conquering hosts, and Harad is laid under tribute. By the later age, the Dúnedain Realm has become corrupt and swollen, and they begin to exterminate their brother-peoples. The Orcs, having previously resurfaced in the late Fourth Age, migrate to the eastern borders of the Dúnedain Realm in the Last Desert, and there they enslave the local men; most gradually go extinct. Others of Orc-kind flee into deep Harad, becoming wild and beastly, and losing their capacity for speech and craft. The Hobbits continue to withdraw, and become a near-mythical people. Many of the Sindar who remain retreat into the north of Dor Bendor, gathering under Atyaro Hellor and preserving their culture into the latter ages, while the remaining Eldar flee westwards in great convoys, sundering their ancient alliance with the Dúnedain; and with them flee many of the faithful.
  • F.A 1900 - the last of the Dúnedain kings, Mattushalakh the Old, reigns, and attempts to reverse the corruption of his folk. His son, Nôhakh, receives visions from Eru Iluvatar, portending the doom of the world, and he builds in secret a great ship, the Markirya.
  • F.A 2000 - In answer to the prayers of the Faithful and of the Eldar, the Valar once more call upon Eru to intervene in the fate of the world. In response, Eru prompts the Great Flood; vast storms shatter the world's coastlines, and the seas swell over the continents. The coasts of the Westlands shrink dramatically, and they become a series of broken peninsulas, known afterwards as Europe; the continent of Harad swells and a vast desert is unveiled in its north, and here the Markirya of Nôhakh settles and its people also, for a time; and the Orocarni of the East are drowned, and the remnant of Rhun becomes a series of vast plains and steppes, and the few cultures that survive the flood remain largely here. But the remains Dúnadan Realms are sundered; most of its folk tragically perish, including Mattushalakh its last king, and the remnant survive only on the sundered isle of Luthany, where their descendants persist as the nomadic proto-Celtic society.

Assumed realms

Alternate History Map: Eurafrasia ca.4000 BC and early historical and mythical or semi-historical Lands and peoples

Alternate History Map: Eurafrasia ca.4000 BC and pseudo pre- and proto-indo-european ethno- and Toponyms

Elvish Placenames

  • Ambarónë, Amrun - Orient
  • Andesalke, Salkinore - Africa
  • Angali - Angli
  • Bablon -Babylon
  • Euti -Jutes
  • Evadriem, Erenol, Eriollo, Angol - Land of the Angli
  • Forisandi -Frisians
  • Forwaith - Vikings
  • Gwasgonin - men of the North
  • Inwinore, Ingilnore, Luthany -England
  • Iras - Irish
  • Iverin -Ireland
  • Kalimban - Germany
  • Minhiriath - Mesopotamia
  • Ninwi, Ninwe - Niniveh
  • Ostor -the far east
  • Ponóre -
  • Ponórir - scandinavia
  • Ringli - arctic colds, the North Pole”
  • Rum, Magbar -Rome
  • Sahóra -the south
  • Saksani - Saxons
  • i Torqeler, Walien - The Tropics
  • Trui - Troy
  • Wéalas - Welsh

Historical and mythical Lands and Places

  • Abakan - Siberia

    Middle-earth in theearly Fifth Age.

  • Abhirati
  • Adulis
  • Aeaea ,Aiaia - Greece
  • Agisymba - chad
  • Ahijava, Achaia - Greece
  • Aia -
  • Aithiopia - Aethiopia
  • Akkad,Akkade, Agade, Accad
  • Albion, Alba - Britain
  • Alodia, Alwa, Alut - Sudan
  • Andomhain, Annwn - Angband, Angmar, Utumno - northpole
  • Anga - northern india
  • Antilia - atlantic ocean
  • Apsartides -
  • Aramu, Ararat, Urattu, Urartri - Armenia
  • Aratta - Iran
  • Arimaspea - southern Siberia
  • Aryanam, Eran, Aneran - Persia
  • Asmaka - northern India
  • Asuva -
  • Atlantis - Númenor
  • Auxum
  • Avanti - western India
  • Azania - southeast africa
  • Babel, Bablon - Babylon
  • Banba - Ireland
  • Biarmia - Achangelsk
  • Blessed Isles - Tol Eressea
  • Brittia - Britain
  • Broceliande - Brittany
  • Burgu
  • Calneh, Chalanne, Calno, Kulnia, Kullani, Kullanhu, Canneh, Kainai
  • Cantre'r Gwaelod - west wales
  • Cathay, Seres, Kitai - China
  • Cera
  • Choda - southern India
  • Ciuin
  • Corbenic - northern britain
  • Cossaea -
  • Cyrenaica, Kyrenaike - Lybia
  • Da'amat - eritrea
  • Dakshina - southern India
  • Danxome - Dahomey
  • Deshret
  • Dilmun, Telmun - bahrain?
  • Dolicha, Duluk, Doliche
  • Dunheide, Dunheath
  • Eden, Edinnu
  • Edom, Udumi
  • Elektrides
  • Emathia, Amathos, Emathoessa
  • Erech, Uruk
  • Funan, Nokor Phnom - vietnam
  • Gandhara - Pakistan
  • Gomer, Gimirru, Gimmerai- southern Russia
  • Gorre - southern Wales
  • Hesperides -
  • Hy Breasil, Brasil - the New Lands
  • Hyrkania, Verkana - Turkmenistan
  • Hyperborea
  • Idumea, Edom
  • Ilion, Wilusha, Truwisha
  • Isbanir - Iraq
  • Issedones, Essedones - southern Siberia
  • Jibin -central asia
  • Jotunheim
  • Kagmasin -Siberia
  • Kalamanthana, Bo-ni, Varuna - Indonesia
  • Kalevala, Väinölä -Finnland
  • Kanim - Tschad
  • Kegnia - Kenya
  • Kemet - Egypt
  • Ker-Ys, Ys -Brittany
  • Kerma -Sudan
  • Kheta - Hittites
  • Kiengir, ki-en-gi(-r)
  • Kilwa - Tanzania
  • Kitara -east central africa
  • Kolchida, Qulha - Kolchis
  • Kong -Ivory coast
  • Kosala -India
  • Kozak, Cosac
  • Kvenland, Cwenland, Kaenland - Finnland
  • Kumari Kandam, Lemuria - pacific ocean
  • Kumat
  • Kuru - india
  • Kurykans -Siberia
  • Kush, Kusi, Cush, Kûs - Sudan
  • Kushan -Afghanistan
  • Kynete - Spain
  • Libu - Lybia
  • Liburnia -croatia
  • Liburnides - Adriatic coast
  • Lochlann, Llychlynn - Scandinavia
  • Logres - England
  • Luthany - England
  • Lüzhen - Manchuria
  • Lyonesse - Cornwall
  • Madai - Iran
  • Mag Mell - Aman
  • Magog, mat-Gugu -Turkey
  • Makuria, Makouria, Makkourae, Makurritae -Sudan
  • Marege
  • Marmarica - Lybia
  • Mbata - Angola
  • Mbundu - Angola
  • Medjai, Mazoi, Madjai, Mejay -Sudan
  • Mentorides - Adriatic coast
  • Meroë, Medewi, Bedewi, Meruwah, Meruwi -Sudan
  • Midian, Madiam, Madyan, Modiana - Arabia
  • Monomotapa -Southern Africa
  • Mpemba kasi - central Africa
  • Mu - pacific Ocean
  • Muspellheim
  • Myrkwid - mirkwood
  • Ndogo - Sudan
  • Niflheim
  • Ninvi, Ninua, Nineue, Nineweh, Ninuwa - Ninive
  • Nobadia, Nobatia -Sudan
  • Nubia, Nub, Nebu, Noubai, Noba, Kesh -Sudan
  • Ogygia - Maltese
  • Ophir, Afar, Afri, Ifri
  • Orungu -central africa
  • Ouagadou
  • N'kongo
  • Paeonia -north macedonia
  • Pallava - south India
  • Pandyas, Pandionis - south India
  • Pelasge, Pelas ge - greece
  • Pelasgian Argos - greece
  • Pene, Malal - Mali
  • Phthia, Phthie -Greece
  • Pohjola, Pohja -Lapland
  • Punt, Pwenet, Pwene, Ta netjer -Somalia
  • Saba, Sheba, Shin, - Arabia
  • Sai
  • Sao - Middle-Africa
  • Sarras - Sinai
  • Scheria, Scherie, Phaeacia -Corfu
  • Scythia, Skythike, Scyth, Saka, Sakae, Sacae, Sai, Iskuzai, Askuzai, Skudra, Askuz, Skuthes, Skuda - central Eurasia
  • Shambhala, Sambhalah, Shamballa, Shambhallah, Xiangbala
  • Shangri-La, Xianggelila
  • Shinar, Shene neharot, Shumeru, Sumer, Sangara, Sangar, Sanhar, Sankhar, Shumer, Sumerû, Sanhar(a) - mesopotamia
  • Shungwaya, Singwaya - Kenia
  • Sinai, Sin-ah
  • Sine -Senegal
  • Singara, tà Síggara, Shinar -Iraq
  • Skandza - Scandinavia
  • Songhay -Mali
  • Soyot
  • Srivijaya - indonesia
  • Suba -Kenya
  • Summerland - Somerset
  • Ta-Seti, Ta Khentit -Egypt
  • Tanganyika - Tanzania
  • Tarsis
  • Tenugu
  • Thrinacia, Trinacria, Thrinacie -Sicily, Malta
  • Thubal
  • Thule, Thoúlē, Tile - Iceland
  • Tìr fo Thonn - Beleriand
  • Tír na mBean
  • Tír na mBéo
  • Tír na nOg
  • Tír na Sorcha
  • Tìr Tairnigir
  • Tombuto - Timbuktu
  • Tora
  • Turan -Uzbekistan
  • Uffern - Underdeeps
  • Uri, Ararat, Lubar -
  • Urundi
  • Utenet
  • Utgard
  • Uttara Kuru
  • Vakatakas
  • Vinland
  • Viteliu - Italy
  • Wa, Wae or Wô - Japan
  • Wagadou -Ghana
  • Wanin, Papooua - New Guinea
  • Wusun, Aswin - western China
  • Xanadu, Sandu, Shangdu -Mongolia
  • Yura
  • Zabulistan, Zavolistan - Afghanistan
  • Zaghawa, Kanem -central africa
  • Zerzura
  • Zion, Sion, Sayon, Syon, Tzion, Tsion - Israel

Middle-Earth and modern Day Europe

The Westlands of Middle-Earth in comparison to modern Europe

Tolkien intended Middle-Earth, or the Westlands, to correspond to Europe but set in a fictional prehistoric Age. He even gave hints that he intended Minas Tirith to be set on the same degree of latitude as Florence and Hobbiton and Rivendell to lay on the same latitude as Oxford. However he never gave informations on any degree of longitude, but these could eventually be guessed by taking his early maps of Beleriand into account. His sketches in the Shaping of Middle-Earth show the northwestern Coasts of Beleriand to be parallel with the west coast of North Africa, taking into account that Beleriand measured roughly 600 miles in longitude, this would set the Nenuial approximately on the same degree of longitude as Dublin. On the other hand, in his early writings, Tolkien had concipated Great Britain and Ireland to be remnants of eastern Tol Eressëa which had broken off the greater part of the island and remained in the east after Ulmo had transferred the rest of the Island into the Bay of Eldamar. Concerning this, the progenitor of the later British Isles must have been part of an archipelago which lay west of the Ered Luin close to the remains of the Bay of Balar and ancient Beleriand, which would place the coast of Lindon at least between the 0 and 10 degree of longitude.