Ered Lithui (S. "The Mountains of Ash") These mountains were so named because of the blanket of ash left by volcanic activity in the lower mountain valleys, they ran eastward from Cirith Gorgor and formed the northern border of Mordor, gradually dwindling into foothills in the central plains.
- Length: 455 miles, from Udun in the west to Carndil (S. "Rednose") in the east.
- Elevation: average peak elevation: 6,000-7500 feet. lowrsr. Grop Kodar (Orc. "Hollow Mount" ) 4,186 feet. highest peak Prosapat (B.S. "Axe-blade") 8,963 feet.
- Climate: average annual precipitation: 10-30 inches. mean annual temperature 5 4 - 6 5 ° F average low. Girthon 25°F average high: Ivanneth 105°F
- Composition: The Ash Mountains are made up mostly of basalt, with a few peaks of granite. They are igneous in origin, formed at the same time as the Ephel Duath. Any mineral wealth accessible from the northern slopes is barely worth mining. Nonetheless, some hardy souls from Gondor scratch small quantities of lead and copper ores from the solid basalt.
- Notes: The fortress of Barad-dur and the volcano Orodruin are part of a southern spur of the Ered Lithui. None of the Mountains of Mordor receive any accumulation of snow in the winter. The igneous rocks which form their base are largely non-porous. As a result, rainfall washes directly off the slopes, leaving them bare of any soil or vegetation. The only birds which nest here are the foul black erbain.
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