"Who is a Númenórean?" (an-Adûna) was a basic question about Dúnadan identity and considerations of Númenórean self-identification (Q."Mende Anduya"). The question gained particular legal prominence due to diminishing of pure Númenórean bloodlines since the Downfall. The definition of who was of Númenórean ancestry varied according to whether it was being considered by the Elendili or Ârûwanâi based on normative religious statutes, self-identification, or by non-Númenóreans for their own particular purposes. Because Númenórean identity could include characteristics of an ethnicity, a religion, and citizenship, the definition varied, particularly since the early 6th century schism.
- According to Namnar Númenórëo, the oldest normative definition, a child born from Númenórean parents was always Númenórean, whatever his actions and beliefs were.
- In ancient Umbarean civil law, a person was Númenórean by birth if born from Númenórean mother.
- Gondorian civil law of 840 extended Númenorean citizenship to anyone possessing more than an eight part Númenórean blood.
- According to Bellakarian tradition an-Adûna was a person who spoke Adûnaic as his native tongue and participated in religious observations of the Ârûwanâi, regardless of ethnic origin.
- Sampsä Rydman: Religion, folklore and cosmology in Gondor and Umbar on Lindëfirion wiki | Religion (archived, latest available).