Central Tûr Betark Detailed Map


The Urîd Pharazâin -the southwestern Chain of the Yellow Mountains


Tûr Betark central and southeastern Chain

The Yellow Mountains (Ap. "Tûr Betark") and were a mountain Chain in Southern Middle-Earth, that separated the Utter south from common Far-Harad or Greater harad.The Western spur of the Yellow Mountains was often believed to have been a remnant of the ancient Grey Mountains of Harad, while the eastern spur was sometimes assumed to be a remnant of the Isle of Almaren.

The Yellow Mountains were the Home of several Peoples, Apysan Herdsmen in the West, Mountainmen, among them the Danak, to the East and Dwarves of the Blacklock Kindred as well.

The peaks of the Tûr Betark rose some 10,000 feet into the southern skies and iso- lates Sirayn from the lands south. Few passes existed to provide safe travel to southernmost Endor. Only one known trade road was in use. The most notable promontory in the area, Ghabaras (Ta. “Horse- head’s Peak”), was the highest in the local chain and possessed the richest mines beneath its roots. In mineral composition, the Tûr Betark were similar to the rest of the range. Quartz, feldspar and mica predominated in these ancient volcanic crags. The minerals caused the summits to appear to glow in the dawn light. Sedimentary and metamorphic rocks might also be found in the northern and southem foothills. Marble, slate, and gneiss formed the boundaries between the volcanic and sedimentary layers. Spectacular colors might be seen where the rock faces were exposed. Moving north from the Tûrr Betark to the desert, the color of the soils and sands changed from yellow to red. This gradation was caused by a change in the mineral content of the bedrock from yellow feldspar to red iron oxide.

The Tûr Betark had the coolest climate in Sirayn. Warm moist air from the Haragaer (S. “South Sea”) rose quickly and dropüed rain on the southem slopes and uppermost peaks of the mountains, bountiously feeding the streams and rivers of the northern slopes. Rainfall, although scant on the north side of the peaks, averaged 75 to 100 inches a year on the south side, and snow fell in every month on the highest peaks. The climate of the Tûr Betark was a welcome change from that of the desert. Temperatures in the upper vales rarely grew warmer than 70 degrees in the summer. However, in the winter they seldom rose above freezing. As in any mountainous area, the temperature at night was much colder than in the daytime. During especially cold years, ice might form on still water during even the summer months.

Places of Interest

Aeluin Aksari Boas Altin Barazimabûl Boas Isra Boasiri Boa Tors Cirith Celiant Cor Minyadhras Dakhûme Evefalin Fhûl Ghabaras Golden Rock Hall of Alûva Hall of Malkôra Inyelis Mablâd-dûm Menelcarca Nárad-dûm Ny Chennacatt Sambi Mornya Sammath Fhûl Spire of the Flame


  • Bûlnd-Mabûl (Kh."Blacklock-Mountains")
  • Irid Laranor (Av. "Listening Mountains")
  • Manyano Malimavi (Drel."Yellow Mountains")
  • Oromaldar (Q."yellow-golden Mountains")
  • Urîd Pharazâno (Ad."Mountains of Gold")


Original form in MERP:Ered Laranor

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